Participatory GIS is the broadest category, which the author analyzes. One can find here methods called participatory GIS, online mapping (Bugs, Granell, Fonts, Huerta, & Painho, 2010; Kyem & Saku, 2009; Peng, 2001), crowdsourcing (Lundin, Kovacic, & Poggiali, 2012), mobile GIS, Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) (Brown, Kelly, & Whitall, 2013; Goodchild, 2007; Tulloch, 2008), neocartography(Cartwright, 2012) and others.
Multimedia mapping is close to the traditional method of transmitting information in spoken form and is suitable for both internal and external participants. Method increases community cohesion and capacity through new knowledge and skills. It includes questionnaires, interviews, participatory video, sound recordings, traditional music, language, or a description of the area through the stories of tribal elders. Created multimedia is subsequently connected to a digital map that can be stored online and offline mode.
Grassroots mapping can be described as a low cost method of obtaining aerial photographs. As a carrier sensor it uses either a balloon filled with helium (if the wind speed is no more than 10 km/h) or kite flying (at higher wind speeds) (Grassrootsmapping.org, 2010). It could be argued that this is merely a variation on the UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), however, this approach is more useful for small community projects, mainly for its simplicity and low operating costs.
GPS mapping is one of the methods that already require sophisticated technical tools and technical literacy. In this case, at least the GPS unit and a device for storing and visualizing data – mostly computer. GPS unit can record location in the form of points or lines.
This methods belongs to the group of methods, that places greater knowledge and skill barriers at the user. GPS mapping may be used for the collection of new information (CyberTracker.org, 2013) or to verify information obtained during some of the less technology-intensive methods (Ground mapping, Sketch mapping or Transect Walk) (Panek & Vlok, 2013).
Participatory 3D modeling is a method of creating and using 3D models of relief based on information from a topographic maps in community planning. The models are formed from paperboard or for the wire patterns, which are then decorated. Individual labels are mostly in the form of tack for point features, coloured strings for linear elements and colour painting for surface elements (IFAD, 2009).
Photo Mapping, like Scale Mapping is a method that uses existing data as a basis in the process of community mapping. Unlike Scale mapping it is not using the classical topographic map, but as the underlying map is used the aerial photograph of the area (Müller & Wode, 2003). Aerial images are more suitable for outside observers, since the majority of users can operate with them without difficulty. (Vlok & Panek, 2012). Continue reading